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Endometriosis & Your Endocrine System. New Interesting Links Found.

Imagine a delicate and intricate network running through your body, connecting various organs and systems. This network is known as the endocrine system, and it plays a crucial role in regulating hormones and maintaining overall health. Within this system, two significant players often go unnoticed: endometriosis and thyroid health.

Endometriosis, a common yet misunderstood condition, affects roughly 10% (190 million) of women worldwide. It occurs when the tissue lining the uterus grows outside of it, leading to debilitating pain, infertility and a host of other symptoms.

On the other hand, the thyroid gland, a small but mighty organ located in the neck, produces hormones that regulate metabolism, growth and development. When the thyroid’s functionality is impaired, it can wreak havoc on a woman’s overall well-being.

Have you ever wondered if there could be a connection between these seemingly unrelated conditions? Can endometriosis impact thyroid health or vice versa?

In this insightful blog post, we will delve into the intricate relationship between endometriosis, thyroid health and the endocrine system.

Together, we will unlock the mysteries surrounding these conditions and explore how they intertwine to influence each other’s functioning. So, grab a cuppa, settle in and get ready to unravel the secrets of this captivating connection.

Exploring Endometriosis: Causes, Symptoms and Impact on Overall Health

Endometriosis is a complex condition that affects women of reproductive age. It occurs when the tissue lining the uterus, known as the endometrium, grows outside of the uterus. This misplaced tissue can attach itself to various organs in the pelvic region, such as the ovaries, fallopian tubes and even the bladder or intestines.

The exact cause of endometriosis is still unknown, but several theories have been proposed. One theory suggests that during menstruation, some of the menstrual blood containing endometrial cells flows backward through the fallopian tubes into the pelvic cavity instead of exiting through the vagina. These cells then implant and grow in areas outside of the uterus.

Photo of doctor in a white coat holding a model of a woman's uterus and pointing to where endometriosis has grown outside the uterus.

Endometriosis can cause a range of symptoms that vary in severity from person to person. Common symptoms include pelvic pain, painful periods (dysmenorrhea), heavy menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia), pain during intercourse (dyspareunia) and infertility.

In addition to these physical symptoms, endometriosis can also have a significant impact on a woman’s mental and emotional well-being.

Furthermore, endometriosis has been linked to various other health issues beyond its immediate effects on reproductive health. Research has shown that individuals with endometriosis may be at a higher risk for developing certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. Additionally, there may be an increased risk for certain types of cancer, such as ovarian cancer.

The Thyroid Gland: Anatomy, Function, and Importance in Hormonal Regulation

The thyroid gland is a small butterfly-shaped organ located in the front of the neck. Despite its size, it plays a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions through the production of thyroid hormones. These hormones, namely triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), are responsible for controlling metabolism, growth and development.

Doctor in a white coat holding a model of the thyroid gland to demonstrate where it is on the throat.

The thyroid gland is regulated by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, which make up the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. The hypothalamus releases thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which signals the pituitary gland to release thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH then stimulates the thyroid gland to produce and release T3 and T4 into the bloodstream.

Thyroid hormones have a widespread impact on the body. They influence metabolism, heart rate, body temperature, digestion, muscle control, brain development and many other vital functions. When there is an imbalance in thyroid hormone production or function, it can lead to various health issues

The Link Between Endometriosis and Thyroid Health: What Research Reveals

Recent research has shed light on a potential connection between endometriosis and thyroid health. Several studies have found a higher prevalence of thyroid disorders among individuals with endometriosis compared to those without the condition.

One study published in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism found that women with endometriosis were more likely to have autoimmune thyroiditis, an inflammatory condition that affects the thyroid gland. Another study published in Fertility and Sterility reported a higher incidence of hypothyroidism among women with endometriosis.

While these findings suggest a link between endometriosis and thyroid health, more research is needed to fully understand the nature of this relationship. It is still unclear whether one condition directly causes or influences the other or if there are underlying factors that contribute to the development of both.

Shared Symptoms: Overlapping Signs and Challenges in Diagnosis

Endometriosis and thyroid disorders share some common symptoms, which can make diagnosis challenging. Both conditions can cause fatigue, weight changes, mood swings and menstrual irregularities. Additionally, they can both contribute to fertility issues.

Due to these overlapping symptoms, it is crucial for healthcare providers to consider the possibility of coexisting endometriosis and thyroid disorders when evaluating patients. A comprehensive medical history, physical examination and appropriate diagnostic tests are essential for accurate diagnosis and effective management.

Hormonal Imbalance: How Endometriosis and Thyroid Dysfunction Influence Each Other

The endocrine system is a complex network of glands that produce hormones responsible for regulating various bodily functions. Both endometriosis and thyroid dysfunction involve hormonal imbalances that can influence each other’s functioning.

In endometriosis, the abnormal growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus disrupts the normal hormonal balance. The excess production of oestrogen by these misplaced cells can lead to an oestrogen dominance state. This hormonal imbalance may affect the function of the thyroid gland and contribute to thyroid dysfunction.

Conversely, thyroid dysfunction can also impact reproductive health. Hypothyroidism, a condition characterized by an underactive thyroid gland, has been associated with menstrual irregularities and infertility. Thyroid hormones play a crucial role in maintaining regular menstrual cycles and supporting optimal fertility.

Impact on Fertility: Endometriosis, Thyroid Health, and Reproductive Challenges

Fertility challenges are a significant concern for individuals with both endometriosis and thyroid disorders. Endometriosis can cause structural abnormalities in the reproductive organs due to adhesions or scar tissue formation. These abnormalities can interfere with the fertilisation of eggs or implantation of embryos, leading to difficulties in conceiving.

Thyroid disorders, particularly hypothyroidism, can also affect fertility. The hormonal imbalances associated with thyroid dysfunction can disrupt the menstrual cycle and impair ovulation. Additionally, thyroid antibodies, which are present in autoimmune thyroiditis, have been linked to reduced fertility and an increased risk of miscarriage.

It is essential for individuals with endometriosis and thyroid disorders who are planning to conceive to work closely with their healthcare providers. A multidisciplinary approach involving gynecologists, endocrinologists and reproductive specialists may be necessary to optimise fertility outcomes.

Treatment Approaches: Addressing Endometriosis and Thyroid Disorders Simultaneously

The management of endometriosis and thyroid disorders often requires a comprehensive approach that addresses both conditions simultaneously. Treatment plans may vary depending on the severity of symptoms, individual needs and reproductive goals.

For endometriosis management, various treatment options are available. These include pain medication, hormonal therapies such as birth control pills or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists/antagonists, surgical interventions like laparoscopy or hysterectomy and complementary therapies like acupuncture or dietary modifications.

In cases where thyroid dysfunction is present alongside endometriosis, appropriate treatment for the thyroid disorder is crucial. This may involve medication such as levothyroxine to restore normal thyroid hormone levels. Regular monitoring of thyroid function through blood tests is necessary to ensure optimal management.

Lifestyle Modifications for Better Hormonal Health: Diet, Exercise, and Stress Management

In addition to medical interventions, certain lifestyle modifications can support hormonal health in individuals with endometriosis and thyroid disorders. These modifications include adopting a balanced diet, engaging in regular exercise and implementing stress management techniques.

A nutrient-rich diet that includes whole grains, lean proteins, fruits, vegetables and healthy fats can provide essential nutrients for hormone production and regulation. Regular physical activity can help improve overall well-being and support hormonal balance. Stress management techniques such as meditation, yoga or counselling can help reduce stress levels and promote hormonal harmony.

Conclusion: Embracing a Comprehensive Approach to Support Endometriosis and Thyroid Health

The intricate connection between endometriosis, thyroid health and the endocrine system highlights the importance of taking a comprehensive approach to manage these conditions effectively. Understanding the shared symptoms, hormonal imbalances and impact on fertility allows healthcare providers to develop personalised treatment plans that address both endometriosis and thyroid disorders.

By embracing a multidisciplinary approach that combines medical interventions with lifestyle modifications, individuals with endometriosis and thyroid disorders can optimise their overall health and well-being. It is essential to work closely with healthcare providers who specialise in these areas to ensure comprehensive care tailored to individual needs.

Unlocking the connection between endometriosis, thyroid health and the endocrine system opens up new possibilities for improved diagnosis, treatment options and support for those affected by these conditions. Together, we can continue to unravel the mysteries surrounding this captivating connection and empower individuals on their journey towards better hormonal health.


Do You Believe These 6 Menstrual Myths? True Or False?

At a given point each day, 800 million women and girls are menstruating. Here are the top 6 menstrual myths and the facts around them.

“Periods Always Happen At The Same Time Every Month” – FALSE

The myth that menstruation always occurs at the same time for every individual is false. Menstrual cycles vary significantly among females and several factors can influence their timing and regularity.

The menstrual cycle is not uniform across all individuals. While the average cycle is often cited as 28 days, it can range from 23 to 35 days in adults and can be even more variable in teenagers. This variability means that the timing of menstruation can differ significantly from one person to another and can also vary for an individual from month to month.

Several factors can affect when menstruation occurs, including:

  • Travel: Changes in time zones can disrupt the menstrual cycle.
  • Weight fluctuations: Significant changes in body weight can affect menstrual regularity.
  • Emotional stress: High levels of stress can lead to changes in the timing of menstruation.
  • Medication: Certain medications, including hormonal contraceptives can influence menstrual cycle timing.

Having a “regular” period bleed does not necessarily mean it occurs on the same date each month. Instead, it means that periods come at roughly the same interval between cycles, which can vary from person to person. Some females may experience irregular periods throughout their lives, with unpredictable timing and duration.

“You Can’t Get Pregnant During Menstruation – IT IS POSSIBLE

Another common myth is that it is impossible to get pregnant during your period.

This is false but less likely. Sperm has the ability to live inside the genital tract for up to 5-7 days. this means that it can, potentially overlap with ovulation in shorter cycles.

Understanding your menstrual cycle is a really empowering way to understand what is happening inside eyourbody and how you will be feeling each week of the month.

“Period Pain Is Not Real” – FALSE

The myth that period pain is not real is false.

Period pain, also known as dysmenorrhea, is a real and common experience for many individuals. It is caused by contractions in the uterus and can range from mild discomfort to severe pain that interferes with daily activities. 

The pain is often due to the release of hormone-like substances called prostaglandins, which can cause the uterine muscles to contract and shed the uterine lining. While some period pain is normal, severe pain that disrupts daily life is not considered normal and may be a sign of an underlying condition, such as endometriosis or uterine fibroids.

It is essential to consult a healthcare provider if you experience significant changes in your period pain or if it impacts your daily functioning.

“Mood Swings Are Not related To Periods” – FALSE.

The claim that mood swings do not have any relation with periods is false.

Mood swings are a well-documented symptom associated with the menstrual cycle, particularly in relation to premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD).

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Mood Swings

PMS encompasses a variety of symptoms that occur in the weeks leading up to menstruation. Mood swings, along with feelings of upset, anxiety, or irritability, are common symptoms of PMS. The prevalence of PMS is significant, with a wide range of physical, emotional, and behavioral symptoms reported. These can include tension, anxiety, depressed mood, crying spells, irritability, anger, appetite changes, trouble sleeping and social withdrawal.

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)

PMDD is a more severe form of PMS, characterized by significant premenstrual mood disturbances that can seriously impact relationships and impair functioning. Symptoms of PMDD are similar to those of PMS but are much more intense and can include severe mood swings, depression, anxiety, and irritability. PMDD affects a smaller percentage of individuals but can have a profound negative impact on daily activities and quality of life.

Factors Influencing Mood Swings

Research indicates that mood swings during menstruation can be influenced by a variety of factors, including hormonal fluctuations, stress, and pre-existing mood or anxiety disorders. Hormonal changes in estrogen and progesterone levels influence serotonin levels, a neurotransmitter that helps regulate mood, sleep cycle, and appetite. Low levels of serotonin are linked to feelings of sadness and irritability, which are common PMS symptoms. Additionally, individuals with a history of mood disorders or a family history of PMDD may be at increased risk for severe premenstrual mood swings.

Treatment and Management

There are several treatment and management options for individuals dealing with mood swings related to their menstrual cycle. These can include lifestyle changes, such as regular exercise, a balanced diet and stress reduction techniques. In more severe cases, medications such as oral contraceptives, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), or other antidepressants may be prescribed. It’s important for individuals experiencing severe or disruptive mood swings to consult with a healthcare provider for a proper diagnosis and treatment plan.

“Period Blood Is Dirty” – FALSE

The myth that period blood is dirty is false.

Menstrual blood is not “dirty” or full of toxins; it is a natural and healthy part of the female reproductive cycle.

Menstrual blood is composed of blood, uterine tissue, mucus lining and bacteria, and it is a normal bodily secretion that is part of the menstrual cycle. This blood is different from the blood that circulates continuously through the veins, as it is less concentrated and contains fewer blood cells.

Cultural and social influences, particularly in certain parts of the world, have historically portrayed menstruation as impure or dirty, but these views are based on myths and misconceptions rather than scientific facts. 

It is important to challenge these myths and recognise that menstruation is a normal physiological process that should not be stigmatised or associated with shame.

“You Can’t Exercise or Go Swimming With a Period” – FALSE

Myths suggesting that exercise and swimming should be avoided during menstruation are false.

As much as you are very unlikely to want to go roller skating, ice skating, hiking or weight training while you are having a period bleed, exercise can help alleviate cramps and improve mood and swimming is perfectly safe and being in warm water will help ease menstrual discomfort.

Bloody Marvellous Limited goes to great lengths to ensure that, to the best of its knowledge, the information provided on this website and its social media channels is correct at the time of publication and/or subsequent modification. This information is solely for general purposes. It has been prepared in order to provide information, education and related products/services offered by Bloody Marvellous and Associated Organisations.

Puberty & Parents. How To Navigate Through The Emotions.

Primary Hormonal Changes

Hormonal changes are one of the most significant and well-known aspects of puberty. During this stage, the body undergoes a series of transformations as it prepares for adulthood. These changes are primarily driven by hormonal shifts that occur within the body.


Puberty marks the onset of adolescence, a period where the brain signals the production and release of hormones from various glands in the body. These hormones act as chemical messengers, traveling through the bloodstream to different parts of the body and triggering physical changes.

The two primary hormones responsible for puberty are oestrogen in females and testosterone in males. While both sexes produce both hormones, they are present in different ratios, leading to distinct physical characteristics.

In Girls

Oestrogen is responsible for breast development, widening hips and growth spurts during puberty. It also plays a crucial role in regulating menstruation and promoting sexual maturation. On average, girls begin to experience these changes between ages 8-13 years old.

In Boys

Boys experience an increase in testosterone levels during puberty, which leads to their characteristic deepening voice, broadening shoulders and chest muscles development. Testosterone also stimulates hair growth on their face and body. Boys typically start experiencing these changes between ages 9-14 years old.

Secondary Hormones

Apart from these primary sex hormones, there are other secondary hormones that play a role in physical changes during puberty.

1) Growth Hormone: This hormone is responsible for overall growth during childhood but becomes more active during puberty when it triggers growth spur ts.

2) Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH): This hormone regulates the thyroid gland’s function, which plays a role in metabolism and growth.

3) Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH): These hormones work together to regulate the menstrual cycle in girls and stimulate testosterone production in boys.

4) Adrenal hormones: The adrenal glands produce hormones such as cortisol and adrenaline, which play a role in regulating stress responses and metabolism.

Physical Changes

The hormonal changes during puberty result in various physical changes that are visible on the body.

These changes include:

1) Growth Spurts: As mentioned earlier, growth hormone plays a significant role in determining height during this stage. Most girls experience their growth spurt around age 11-12, while boys typically start theirs at age 13-14.

2) Body Shape: Oestrogen causes girls’ hips to widen as they prepare for childbirth. Testosterone leads to muscle development in boys, resulting in broader shoulders and a more muscular physique.

3) Hair Growth: Both sexes experience an increase in body hair during puberty. Girls usually see hair first appearing under their arms and around their genitals, while boys may notice facial hair, chest hair, and pubic hair growth.

4) Skin Changes: Hormonal changes during puberty can cause an increase in oil production, leading to oily skin and acne.

5) Breast Development: Oestrogen stimulates the development of breast tissue in girls. This process usually begins with small lumps under the nipples, which then grow into breasts over time.

6) Voice Changes: As boys’ vocal cords grow longer and thicker due to testosterone, their voices deepen and become more resonant.

7) Genital Development: Testosterone causes the testes to grow in boys, while estrogen leads to vaginal and uterine development in girls.

Going through puberty will give you mood swings
Going through puberty will give you mood swings.

Psychological Changes

Apart from physical changes, puberty also brings about significant psychological changes as adolescents navigate their emotions and social interactions. Some common psychological changes during this stage include:

1) Mood swings: Hormonal fluctuations during puberty can lead to sudden mood swings and intense emotions.

2) Self-awareness: As their bodies change rapidly, adolescents may become more self-conscious and aware of their appearance.

3) Identity formation: Puberty is a crucial time where adolescents start exploring who they are and shaping their sense of identity.

4) Increased interest in sexuality: With the onset of puberty comes a surge in sexual feelings and curiosity about relationships and intimacy.

5) Struggle with body image: As their bodies change, adolescents may struggle with body dissatisfaction and comparison to others.

6) Increased independence: Adolescents may also start seeking more independence from parents and other authority figures as they develop a sense of self.


Puberty is a complex process that involves physical, hormonal, and psychological changes. It marks the transition from childhood to adulthood, preparing individuals for reproductive maturity. While this stage can be challenging for both adolescents and their parents, understanding the changes that occur during puberty can help ease some of the challenges and foster healthy development.

Changes in reproductive organs

The physical changes that occur during puberty can be overwhelming for young children, especially when it comes to changes in their reproductive organs. As a parent, it is important to approach this topic with sensitivity and open communication.

One of the most noticeable changes during puberty is the development of secondary sexual characteristics such as breasts in girls and facial hair in boys. But along with these external changes, there are also internal changes happening in the reproductive organs.

In girls, their ovaries start producing estrogen and progesterone hormones which trigger the growth of their reproductive system. This includes the uterus, fallopian tubes, and vagina. They may also experience vaginal discharge as a result of hormonal fluctuations.

Girls will also start to have periods or menstruation once they reach menarche, which usually occurs between ages 10-15 years old. This is a normal part of puberty and signifies that a girl’s body is now capable of becoming pregnant.

Let your child discover menstrual products with the Perfect First Period Kit, age appropriate pads and tampons from different brands to learn how to handle, test absorbance and become confident.

#BMarvellous Team

It is important to explain to your child that menstrual cycles are a natural process and not something shameful or embarrassing. These first conversations will shape her thought process for the rest of her life. You can also discuss how to manage periods through various methods such as pads or tampons.

For boys, puberty brings about changes in their testes which start producing testosterone hormones. This hormone triggers the growth of their male reproductive system including the penis and scrotum. They may also experience wet dreams or nocturnal emissions where semen is released during sleep.

Boys will also experience an increase in muscle mass and deepening of their voice due to increased testosterone levels. Overall, it is important to talk to your child about these changes and reassure them that they are normal and a natural part of growing up.

Encourage them to ask questions and provide accurate information about puberty and reproductive health. This will help them feel more prepared and confident as they navigate through this stage of development.

Read the next step of our Parents Guide to Puberty here.